1. Cotter SA, Cyert LA, Miller JM, Quinn GE. Vision screening for children 36 to <72 months: Recommended practices. Optom Vis Sci January 2015 [ePub ahead of print].
2. Hartmann EE, Block SS, Wallace DK. Vision and eye health in children 36 to <72 months: Proposed data system. Optom Vis Sci January 2015 [ePub ahead of print].

3. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020. Objective Retained As Is From Healthy People 2010, V HP2020–1. (http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicId=42). Last accessed Feb 4, 2013. 

4. US Preventive Services Task Force. Vision screening for children 1 to 5 years of age: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation statement. Pediatrics, 2011, 127(2): 340-6.

5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Bright Futures guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents. http://brightfutures.aap.org/pdfs/Guidelines_PDF/13-Rationale_and_Evidence.pdf). Last accessed May 1, 2013.

6. Repka MX, Kraker RT, Holmes JM, Summers AI, Glaser SR, Barnhardt CN, Tien DR; for the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Atropine vs Patching for Treatment of Moderate Amblyopia: Follow-up at 15 Years of Age of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 May 1. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.392. [Epub ahead of print]

7. Scheiman MM, Hertle RW, Beck RW, Edwards AR, Birch E, Cotter SA, Crouch ER Jr, Cruz OA, Davitt BV, Donahue S, Holmes JM, Lyon DW, Repka MX, Sala NA, Silbert DI, Suh DW, Tamkins SM; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years. Arch Ophthalmol 2005 Apr; 123(4):437-47.

8. Levinson DR. Most Medicaid Children in Nine States Are Not Receiving All Required Preventive Screening Services, OEI-05-08-00520. Washington, DC: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, May 2010. 2, 4. (https://oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-08-00520.pdf). Last accessed May 2, 2013.

9. Kemper AR, Wallace DK, Patel N, Crews JE. Preschool vision testing by health providers in the United States: findings from the 2006-2007 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. J AAPOS. 2011 Oct; 15(5): 480-3.

10. Hambidge SJ, Emsermann CB, Federico S and Steiner JF. Disparities in pediatric preventive care in the United States, 1993-2002. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:30-6.

11. Shaw JS, Wasserman RC, Barry S, Delaney T, Duncan P, Davis W, Berry P. Statewide quality improvement outreach improves preventive services for young children. Pediatrics. 2006; 118(4): e1039-47. 

12. Stange KC, Flocke SA, Goodwin MA, Kelly RB, Zyzanski SJ. Direct observation of rates of preventive service delivery in community family practice. Prev Med. 2000; 31(2 Pt 1): 167-76.

13. Marsh-Tootle WL, Wall TC, Tootle JS, Person SD, Kristofco RE. Quantitative pediatric vision screening in primary care settings in Alabama. Optometry and Vision Science. 2008; 85(9): 849-56.

14. Kemper AR, Heifrich A, Talbot J, Patel N, Crews JE, Improving the rate of preschool vision screening: an interrupted time-series analysis. Pediatrics, 2011; 128 (5): e1279-84. 

15. Social Security Act of 1965 §501, 42 United States C. §701-710 (2010).

16. US Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Maternal and Child Health Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program (http://mchb.hrsa.gov/programs/titlevgrants). Last accessed May 2, 2013. 

17. Dougherty D, Schiff J, Mangione-Smith R. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act quality measures initiatives: moving forward to improve measurement, care, and child and adolescent outcomes. Acad Pediatr. 2011, 11(3 Suppl): S1-S10.

18. Goldstein MM, Rosenbaum S. From EPSDT to EHBs: the future of pediatric coverage design under government financed health insurance. Pediatrics, 2013; 131 Suppl 2:S142-8.

19. NQF Releases Updated Child Quality Health Measures. (http://www.qualityforum.org/News_And_Resources/Press_Releases/2011/NQF_Releases_Updated_Child_Quality_Health_Measures.aspx). Last accessed May 2, 2013.

20. Health and Human Services Secretary. Annual Report on the Quality of Care for Children in Medicaid and CHIP. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; September 2011. (http://www.medicaid.gov/Medicaid-CHIP-Program-Information/By-Topics/Quality-of-Care/Downloads/2011_StateReporttoCongress.pdf). Last accessed Mar 4, 2014.

21. Weisman NW, Allison JJ, Keife CI, Farmer RM, Weaver MT, Williams OD, Child IG, Pemberton JH, Brown KC, Baker CS. Achievable benchmarks of care: the ABCs of benchmarking. J Eval Clin Pract. 1999 Aug; 5(3):269-81. Review.

22. Marsh-Tootle WL, McGwin G, Tootle JS, and Wall TC. Preschool vision screening in primary care settings: Typical and achievable rates during three annual periods. ARVO abstract 3879/D703:2012. 

23. Donahue SP, Arthur BA, Neely DE, Arnold RW, Silbert D, Ruben JB. On behalf of the AAPOS Vision Screening Committee. Guidelines for automated preschool vision screening: A 10-year, evidence-based update. ; JAAPOS 2013;174-8.. 

24. US Department of Health and Human Services Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) 435 Maternal and Child Health Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program (Access 436 verified May 20, 2014) https://mchdata.hrsa.gov/tvisreports/MeasurementData/StandardNationalMeasureIndicatorSearch.aspx?MeasureType=Performance&YearType=MostRecent

25. Bittner K and Spence I. Use Case Modeling. Boston: Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co., Inc.; ©2002

26. http://www.medicaid.gov/Medicaid-CHIP-Program-Information/By-Topics/Quality-of-Care/CHIPRA-Initial-Core-Set-of-Childrens-Health-Care-Quality-Measures.htm Last accessed Mar 4, 2014

27. Flores G; Committee on Pediatric Research. Technical report--racial and ethnic disparities in the health and health care of children. Pediatrics. 2010; 125(4): e979-1020.

28. Berdahl T, Owens PL, Dougherty D, McCormick MC, Pylypchuk Y, Simpson LA. Annual report on health care for children and youth in the United States: racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in children's health care quality. Acad Pediatr. 2010; 10(2): 95-118.

29. Marsh-Tootle, WL. Funkhouser E, Frazier MG, Crenshaw K Wall TC. Knowledge, Attitudes and Environment: What Primary Care Providers Say about Preschool Vision Screening. Optom Vis Sci. 2010 Feb;87(2):104-11

30. Frazier M, Garces I, Scarinci I, Marsh-Tootle W.Seeking Eye Care for Children: Perceptions among Hispanic Immigrant Parents. J Immigr Minor Health. 2009, 11:215-21. EPub 2008 Jun 13.

31. Hered RW1, Rothstein M. Preschool vision screening frequency after an office-based training session for primary care staff. Pediatrics. 2003 Jul;112(1 Pt 1):e17-21.

32. Clausen MM1, Armitage MD, Arnold RW. Overcoming barriers to pediatric visual acuity screening through education plus provision of materials. J AAPOS. 2009 Apr;13(2):151-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.10.018.

33. Marsh-Tootle WL, McGwin G, Kohler CL, Kristofco RE, Datla, RV, Wall, TC. Efficacy of a web based intervention to improve and sustain knowledge about screening for amblyopia in primary care settings. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Sep 9;52(10):7160-7.doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6566.


Return to Performance Measure Recommendations 
Return to main page